Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
! Automatic translation of the English version of the site !
Dear site visitor!
I, Vsevolod Hryhorovych Lozytsky, was born on March 2, 1950 in the village of Irshyky, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytsky region. He graduated from Khyzhnytsia High School in 1967. From 1968 to 1970 he served in the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union.
From 1970 to 1975 he studied at Kyiv State University named after T.G. Shevchenko, at the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, and from 1975 to 1978 - in graduate school at this university.
He defended his Ph.D. dissertation in 1984 and his doctoral dissertation in 2003. He is currently a leading researcher at the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Astronomical Observatory. Under my supervision, two PhD theses were defended.
Author of about 300 scientific papers on the problems of magnetic fields in the Sun and solar activity.
Member of the International Astronomical Union. Hirsch index h = 8. Author of several popular science articles.
Excellent education of Ukraine. Married, three children.
I would like to supplement this very short autobiographical reference with some explanations and considerations that may be useful when reading my site.
First of all, I am very grateful to my friend Volodymyr Anatoliyovych Boychuk for his offer to create my personal website, as well as for his direct work on its creation. Why did I agree to make such a site?
I am 70 years old, and this is the finish line of my life. Thank God I lived such a long life. My father, Hryhoriy Denysovych Lozytsky (1919-1982), and my brother, Yevhen Hryhorovych Lozytsky (1939-2002), lived for 63 years. Back in 2012, on the eve of my 63rd birthday, I decided that I needed to have time to do something important in this world - what is my vocation, what is my mission here before God. After all, in accordance with the "Parable of the Talents" (Matthew 25: 14-25: 30), the Last Judgment will reveal what I did with my talent - bury it in the ground or multiply it. As you know from this parable, woe to him who buries his talent in the ground…
And what can really be done? In my opinion, it is time to say the basics in science (in my direction), as well as the basics of my life experience, with its positive and negative aspects. Maybe it will be useful to someone.
There is an obvious argument in favor of doing this as soon as possible, without postponing the case. At this age there is a high probability of a quick and unexpected end to active life. It may not necessarily be a physical ending, but primarily an intellectual one. We must cherish this period of life, when thoughts are still clear and memory is relatively fresh.
So, a very short announcement of what is stated in other sections of my site.
My most important scientific achievement is the argument in favor of the existence of extremely strong magnetic fields in active regions on the Sun, with tensions of the order of 10 ^ 4 Gauss (Gs). Such magnetic fields are about 10 times stronger than the well-known magnetic fields in sunspots. I first made this hypothesis 40 years ago, in 1980, at the International Scientific Conference in Irkutsk. Since that year, I have had a series of scientific articles on the subject, including international journals, but this result is not yet widely accepted. Studies show that such very strong magnetic fields, if they exist, are on a very small scale in the Sun (less than 50 km), which are not yet separated by modern solar telescopes. It is on this scale that one can expect some exotic features of the corresponding magnetic structures, such as the discreteness of their magnetic field values, close contact of opposite magnetic polarities, and significant thermodynamic effects. Together with prof. Solovyov OA the Pulkovo Observatory proposed (in 1986) a theoretical model that satisfactorily explains some of the results of observations. It should be emphasized that such magnetic structures are radically different from those much simpler magnetic fields that can be obtained in terrestrial laboratories. This is due to the fact that solar magnetic fields occur in the convective zone of the Sun, where very complex movements of matter, high temperature and ionization of plasma. This leads to the "freezing" of the magnetic field into a substance in which the lines of force of the magnetic field can become strongly entangled and twisted, greatly complicating the topology of the magnetic field and significantly increasing its local tensions. The study of such unusual magnetic fields may be one of the promising areas of solar physics in the future.
I have been observing and analyzing solar activity since my school years (since 1965), but as an astronomer I have been researching it since 1975, based on spectral observations conducted mainly on the horizontal solar telescope of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Astronomical Observatory. During this long period (45 years, ie four 11-year cycles of solar activity), I observed more than a hundred solar flares on the Sun and received very valuable observational material. Among these flares, about 10 are powerful flashes of score X, which occur very rarely and which are particularly interesting to study to deepen the understanding of the physics of extreme manifestations of solar activity. In particular, we managed to observe together with N.Y. Lozitskaya solar flare on October 28, 2003 score X17.2 / 4B - third in the X-ray flux rating since 1976. The results of the study of magnetic fields and thermodynamic conditions in this flare were published in the international journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2018, Vol. 477, Iss. 2) with a fairly high impact factor, about 5. There are other interesting studies that can be found in the relevant section of my site. There are, in particular, publications in international journals such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Advances in Space Research, Letters to the Astronomical Journal and others.
For 22 years, from 1990 to 2012, I read a special course "Physics of the Sun" for students of the Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Faculty of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. The program of the special course also included solar-terrestrial connections, ie the impact of solar activity on interplanetary and near-Earth space, the Earth's geosphere and biosphere. In preparation for these lectures, I studied in depth a new scientific field, because my research profile - solar spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry, diagnostics of solar magnetic fields. At the same time, I discovered some interesting facts, namely that some extreme manifestations of solar activity did not occur before very strong disturbances in the geosphere, but on the contrary, after them or simultaneously with them. In particular, it is documented that
(A) the maximum number of sunspots in the last 400 years was in the 19th cycle of solar activity (1954-1964), when the maximum total energy of global nuclear weapons tests and the energy of earthquakes was at its highest;
(B) the maximum area of sunspot groups (up to 5,000–6,000 million parts of the hemisphere) for the last 140 years was recorded in 1946–1947, with the first extremely large groups of sunspots appearing on January 31, 1946, about six months after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively);
(C) the highest level of coronal activity of the Sun in the form of a grand eruption of eruptive prominence to a record altitude (1.7 million km) was observed on April 4, 1946 - about 10 months after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki;
(D) The most powerful X-ray flare in the Sun in 44 years, according to GOES orbital detectors, had an X28 + rating and occurred on November 4, 2003, about 7.5 months after the start of the large-scale war in Iraq. Earth.
It is important to emphasize that the probability of a coincidence of the above pairs of events is within (0.4–2.5)%. If we estimate the probability of occurrence of all such events in their full set, then the probability of chance at the level of one million or less. Such a very small level of chance may mean that these events on Earth and in the Sun are causally related. Since the direct impact of terrestrial events on solar energy is impossible, it must be assumed that there is an indirect impact due to the inaccessible direct observation factor, which has a cosmic energy level.
Here I decided on an interpretation that goes beyond science. This was in 2010, the Year of Astronomy, dedicated to the 400th anniversary of the first astronomical discoveries from telescope made by Galileo Galilei. At that time, the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory hosted the traditional International Scientific Conference, which also had a solar section. Then, more precisely on September 7, 2010, I spoke at the conference with the report "Statistics of giant sunspots (140-180 mm) in the activity cycles №№ 17, 18 and 22"; co-authors of the report were Babiy VP, Lozytsky VG and Efimenko VM I then made three scientific hypotheses, more precisely an assumption as to why such giant spots appeared on the Sun in 1939. and in 1946-47, namely:
(1) the non-uniformity of the Sun's rotation, which created local in time amplification of the field,
(2) sporadic discreteness in the space of magnetic field amplification regions in the convective zone, where there are different statistics on the mechanisms of its generation and
(3) these spots are "pieces" of a relict magnetic field that have risen to the surface of the Sun from its core, in transit through the radial transfer zone and the convective zone.
Before making the fourth assumption, I recalled that the first telescopic discoveries were made by Galileo Galilei, who was a devout scientist. Also believing scientists were all six of the greatest physicists of the 17th century - in addition to Galileo, also Isaac Newton, Johann Kepler, Blaise Pascal, Rene Descartes and Gottfried-Wilhelm Leibniz. It can be assumed that these giant spots were God's Providence, a testament to God's Wrath because humans created nuclear bombs and even used them to destroy other people. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions took place on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively, and the first giant sunspots appeared six months after them… About 1939 Werner Heisenberg, winner of the Nobel Prize in 1932, said: "Twelve of the world's leading physicists, in agreement with each other, could prevent the creation of a nuclear bomb." However, as we know, this did not happen - ambitions, state interests, fear of being weaker than a possible rival on the world stage prevailed. And the result is known. This is not only the horror of the peaceful burning of peaceful Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but also the progressive radioactive contamination that threatens the genetic stability of Homo sapiens as a species - completely healthy children are born less and less… This is not a definite possibility global nuclear conflict…
My speech at the conference was received then with interest and quite normally, without sharp criticism. Sharp I heard the statement later when other colleagues read my assumption.
Of course, I decided on such an interpretation not by chance. I have believed in God since I was a child, about 10 years old. I will try to answer the question "why?" in the section where my worldview will be discussed.
I believe that my most important work is not purely scientific articles, but these two popular science works, completed in 2020: " Astronomical confirmations of the Bible. Matthew 18:18 (extended version) , as well as "The Strange Eclipses of the Sun: An Interpretation on the Boundary of the Bible and Science ."
Their main conclusions are as follows.
The above solar-earthly correlations confirm these words of the Gospel of St. Matthew (18:18): “Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed. it will be resolved in heaven. " From these correlations it follows that nuclear weapons are a step of humanity beyond the "red line". This is not in our favor, according to the words of the Apostle Paul (1 Cor. 6:12): “All things are lawful for me, but not all things are expedient. I can do anything, but I shouldn't have anything. " It is not to be regretted that Ukraine renounced nuclear weapons in 1994. It is better to have God's Mercy and Grace than nuclear or other superweapons. God's Grace and Grace are more important to man than the warmth and light of the nearest star called the Sun.
Relevant arguments for such conclusions are given in the full texts of these works on my site.
With respect and best wishes,
July 16-20, 2020
MY SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY
Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
NAS of Ukraine
astrophysics, heliophysics and physics of the solar system.
My research interest is focused mainly on two issues. The first is the problem of extremely strong magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere (> 5 kGs). Observational evidence of such strong magnetic fields is sometimes found in solar flares and spots. It can be expected that such fields should have some exotic topology of lines of force capable of withstanding the huge intrinsic magnetic pressure at relatively low external pressure. There are still many unclear issues that require new observations with higher spatial resolution, as well as the construction of theoretical models of concentrated magnetic fields. The second problem is the problem of the cyclical nature of solar activity and possible external influences on it. Some details on the second problem were published, for example, in the book "Geomagnetism and Aeronomy", 2018, vol. 58, №. 8, pp.1057-1060.
Previous and current research:
I studied in detail the spectra of many solar flares and sunspots, using mostly my own observations (from the 1970s to the present) on the solar telescope of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Kiev. Extremely strong magnetic fields (> 5 kGs) were detected in flashes and their properties were studied. Semi-empirical and theoretical MHD models of observed phenomena are constructed. Extremely strong magnetic fields have also been detected and studied in sunspots. Important correlations were found between the most intense manifestations of solar activity and some processes on Earth.
Future projects and goals:
Our current projects are to improve methods for diagnosing spatially indivisible (subtelescopic) magnetic fields in the Sun, given that the range of their possible stresses may be much wider than currently thought. We have high hopes for new observational data from the Hinode Space Observatory and the GREGOR Ground Observatory. Stokes diagnostics of active formations on the Sun using modern inverse methods and software codes can provide new important data on solar magnetism.
Methodological and technical expertise:
Solar spectroscopy. Measurement of the magnetic field using the Zeeman effect. Diagnosis of spatially inseparable (subtelescopic) magnetic fields. Semi-empirical and theoretical models of active processes on the Sun.
List of articles by VG Lozytsky for 2015-2020 in magazines,
included in scientific and metric databases WoS and / or Scopus
Complete data on articles with the web address of the electronic version; select the names of authors who belong to the list of authors, the index of SNIP publications (Source Normalized Impact Per Paper)
Profiles of spectral lines, magnetic fields and thermodynamical conditions in X17.2 / 4B solar flare of October 28, 2003 [Text] / VG Lozitsky, EA Baranovsky, NI Lozitska, VP Tarashchuk // Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 2018. - Vol. 477, Iss. 2. - P. 2796-2803.
Scopus, Web of Science
Efimenko VM Essential features of long-term changes of areas and diameters of sunspots in solar activity cycles 12-24 [Text] / VM Efimenko, VG Lozitsky // Advances in Space Research. - 2018. - Vol. 61, Iss. 11. - P. 2820-2826. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117718302151
Scopus, Web of Science
1,067 th most common
Lozitsky VG Spectral manifestations of extremely strong magnetic fields in the sunspot umbra [Text] / VG Lozitsky // Advances in Space Research. - 2017 - Vol. 59, no 5. - P. 1416-1424. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117716306779
Scopus, Web of Science
1,067 th most common
Lozitsky VG Small-scale magnetic field diagnostics in solar flares using bisectors of I ± V profiles [Text] / VG Lozitsky // Advances in Space Research. - 2015. - V. 55, Iss. 3. - P. 958–967. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117714005936
Scopus, Web of Science
1,067 th most common
Efimenko VM New data on long-term changes of solar activity [Text] / VMEfimenko, VGLozitsky // Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. -2018. - Vol. 58, Iss. 8, pp.1057-1060
Scopus, Web of Science
Magnetic fields and thermodynamical conditions at photospheric layers of X17.2 / 4B solar flare of 28 October 2003 [Text] / VG Lozitsky, EA Baranovsky, NI Lozitska, VP Tarashchuk // Journal of Physical Studies. - 2017. - Vol. 21, no. 3. - P. 3902 (7p.).
Scopus, Web of Science
Lozytsky VG Physical conditions in the solar flare on July 19, 2000, M6.4 / 3N [Text] / V.G. Lozytsky, MI Stodilka // Journal of Physical Studies. - 2019. - Vol. 23, No.4. - 4902 (10p.).
Scopus, Web of Science
Lozitsky VG Line profiles and magnetic fields in the limb solar flare of July 1, 1981. Preliminary results [Text] / VGLozitsky, IIYakovkin, NILozitska // Journal of Physical Studies. - 2020. - Vol. 24, No.2. - 2901 (7 p.).
Scopus, Web of Science
Methodical problems of magnetic field measurements in umbra of sunspots [Text] / NI Lozitska,> VG Lozitsky <, OA Andryeyeva [et al.] // Advances in Space Research. - 2015. - V.55, Iss. 3 - P. 897–907. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027311771400502X
Scopus, Web of Science
1,067 th most common
Analysis of unresolved photospheric magnetic field structure using Fe I 6301 and 6302 lines [Text] / Gordovskyy M., Shelyag S., Browning PK, Lozitsky VG // Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 2018. - Vol. 619, id.A164, 10 pp.
Scopus, Web of Science
1,099 th most common
Using the Stokes V widths of Fe I lines for diagnostics of the intrinsic solar photospheric magnetic field [Text] / Gordovskyy M., Shelyag S., Browning PK, Lozitsky VG // Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 2020. - Volume 633, id.A136, 6 pp.
DOI: 10.1051 / 0004-6361 / 201937027
Scopus, Web of Science
1,099 th most common
Mixed-polarity magnetic fields in the area of a seismic source associated with a large proton flare [Text] / VG Lozitsky, EA Baranovsky, NI Lozitska [et al.] // Journal of Physical Studies. - 2019. - Vol. 23, No.4. - 4903 (7 p.).
Scopus, Web of Science
Scientific conferences in which Lozytsky VG took part
publication of materials
International Scientific Conference "Solar and Solar-Earth Physics - 2019". St. Petersburg, Pulkovo, 7 - October 11, 2019, 2019.– P. 35 –38. http://www.gaoran.ru/russian/solphys/2019/
On the question of the existence of superstrong magnetic fields in flares
6th Gamow International Conference “New Trends in Cosmology, Astrophysics and Radioastronomy after Gamow ”, August 11−18, 2019, Odessa, Ukraine. Book of abstracts, p. 41.
Evidences for strong mixed-polarity magnetic field in the area of seismic source associated with large proton solar flare
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 28-31, 2019, Kyiv, Ukraine, p. 68. http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/conference/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Book_of_Abstracts-2019.pdf
Intrinsic photospheric magnetic field diagnostics using the Stokes V widths method
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 28-31, 2019, Kyiv, Ukraine, p. 70. http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/conference/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Book_of_Abstracts-2019.pdf
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 28-31, 2019, Kyiv, Ukraine, p. 81. http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/conference/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Book_of_Abstracts-2019.pdf
Comparison of the results of measurements of magnetic fields of sunspots in four observatories
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 28-31, 2019, Kyiv, Ukraine, p. 82. http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/conference/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Book_of_Abstracts-2019.pdf
Solar flares: magnetic fields, energy, geoefficiency
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 27-29, 2020, Kyiv, Ukraine
Unique mixed-polarity magnetic field structure in great X17.2 / 4B solar flare observed on photospheric and chromospheric levels
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 27-29, 2020, Kyiv, Ukraine
Comparative study of magnetic fields in a sunspot from observations in spectral lines with different Landé factors
International Conference "Astronomy and Physics of Space at the University of Kiev", May 27-29, 2020, Kyiv, Ukraine
Comparison of physical conditions in two phases of the solar flare on 19 July 2000 of M6.4 / 3N class
Simultaneous observations of K Ca II, Hδ and He I 4471.5 Å lines in a limb solar flare
Optical and technical solutions for digital recording of the solar spectrum in various diffraction orders of the Echelle spectrograph
“Astronomy and Space Physics at Kyiv University”
27-29 May 2020
Comparative study of magnetic fields in sunspots from observations in spectral lines with different Landé factors
Fourth UK-Ukraine-Spain Meeting
on Solar Physics and Space Science
(28 Aug - 1 Sep, 2017, Kyiv, Ukraine)
Magnetic fields and thermodynamic conditions at photospheric and chromospheric layers of X17.2 / 4B solar flare of 28 October 2003
My worldview was formed mainly as a child, under the influence of my passion for astronomy, as well as as a result of communication with adults and the understanding of my personal life experience. Later, the formation of the worldview was completed through regular reading of the Bible and other religious literature. I'll start with astronomy.
I became interested in astronomy at the age of four, more precisely after the total solar eclipse on June 30, 1954. At that time, the band of total solar eclipse passed through all of Ukraine, from its northwest to southeast. Our family then lived in the village of Khyzhnyky, Starokostiantyniv district, Khmelnytsky region.
I remember then, in the middle of a cloudless day, it was gradually night, when the sun was barely shining in the sky. My mother, Sofiya Yosypivna Lozytska, then smoked a piece of glass and showed me and my neighbors the various phases of the eclipse. This made a very deep impression on me. As soon as I learned to read, I immediately started reading a school textbook on astronomy B.A. Vorontsov-Velyaminov. This textbook was in our house then because my brother Eugene and older sister Luba were 11 and 10 years older than me, respectively, and just studied astronomy in high school…
Knowing my passion for astronomy, my cousin Leonid Ivanovich Shulyak from Sudilkov gave me six field binoculars. I was very grateful to him for that! A gigantic, wonderful world, full of mysteries and boundless in space, has opened up to me…
"The stars lead to infinity." I read this popular science book by Felix Ziegel with special enthusiasm, I dreamed of becoming an astronomer-specialist…
With binoculars, I could already see that there are craters and mountains on the moon, that there are many stars in the Milky Way. But I wanted to have a telescope with a higher magnification. My father, Hryhoriy Denysovych Lozytsky, wrote a letter to the Central Department Store in Moscow asking him to sell the telescope. The answer was: "The Central Department Store does not sell telescopes." My parents loved me and supported my interest in astronomy. They believed that I would be a scientist, not just a school teacher. Only love and deep gratitude - that's what I have in my heart for them, my dearest…
"What and how to observe the sky" - this wonderful book by Vladimir Platonovich Tsesevich was for me a real guide for astronomical observations for scientific purposes. I began to observe with binoculars the changing stars and the Sun, kept a diary of observations, in which I recorded some events of my personal life…
Having no telescope at first, I began to make telescopes myself, using lenses from glasses and from the camera lens. The first small telescope gave a magnification of about 15 times, but it was with him that I first saw the phases of Venus, which was a great joy for me.
Of course, this telescope had a strong chromatic aberration, but then I already knew how to deal with it - you should put the aperture on the lens, significantly reducing the inlet of the telescope. However, the images of the Moon and planets came out very dim, with low contrast - as if some shadows in the field of view of the eyepiece.
Finally, when I was about 14 years old, I had the opportunity to observe the sky with a factory serial telescope that gave a magnification of 30 and 60 times. It was a 60-millimeter school refractor, rented in the physics classroom of Khyzhnytsia Secondary School, with the kind permission of physics teacher Mefodiy Makarovych Kharchenko. Since then, I have made regular observations of many objects in the sky - the sun, planets, moon, nebulae, variable stars. At the same time, I tried to follow the methodological recommendations of the above-mentioned book by V.P. Tsesevich "What and how to observe in the sky."
The most scientifically valuable were my observations of the phases of Venus, made in four elongations in 1965-1967. The main purpose of these observations was to study the Schroeter effect. The essence of this effect is the difference between the dates of the observed dichotomy of Venus from the theoretical one. The dichotomy is the phase of the planet when exactly half of its disk is visible. If the planet did not have an atmosphere, the theoretical and observed dates of the dichotomy would exactly coincide. But due to the refraction of light in the atmosphere of Venus, the sun's rays illuminate most of the visible hemisphere of the planet - hence this discrepancy between theory and observation. The magnitude of such a discrepancy can vary depending on the state of Venus' atmosphere, and this is the scientific value of dichotomy observations.
In fact, this task was quite difficult to observe with a telescope that gives a magnification of only 60 times. This requires an increase of at least 2 times greater. All g yet, making very careful sketches of the phases of Venus, averaging the data graphically as well as the least squares method, I got quite specific data on the Schroeter effect I found the theoretical dates of the dichotomy of Venus in an interesting brochure by VP Konoplyova "Planet of Venus", published in 1963 p.). It turned out that the difference between the dates of the observed and theoretical dichotomy of Venus is in the range of 4.4-10 days, and this difference has a different sign for the eastern and western elongations. These I drew up the results in the form of a scientific article and sent them to Moscow, to the Astronomical Herald. There this article got to Vitaly Alexandrovich Bronshten, which I shortened it considerably, but wrote a resume in English, for which I am very grateful. I am very sorry that I did not thank him clearly at the end of the article! After all, this was my first scientific work, written when I had just finished high school… The article was published when I was already serving in the army after the first unsuccessful admission to Kyiv State University named after T.G. Shevchenko. The complete journal data of this my first article are as follows: Lozitsky VG On observations of the dichotomy of Venus // Astronomical Bulletin. - 1969. - Volume 3, № 2. - p. 114–116. All my next articles are only about the Sun.
As for the worldviews of my childhood and youth, these were at first purely materialistic ideas, formed on the basis of reading books on astronomy at the time, many of which, incidentally, were in the library of the village club. However, later I began to realize that everything is not so simple in this world.
Probably it all started with the fact that I noticed this pattern: as soon as on Sunday (Russian "Sunday") I take my hands in a knife and do something - be sure to cut myself, there will be blood. I was still a very young child, maybe about 10 years old, and no one scared me with any sin then… My father liked to repeat: "I am not an atheist, although an atheist" and asked me to explain how I understand this statement. I answered him something like this: a person in his life must have some moral principles, high ideals (probably then I answered somehow easier). In fact, our whole family was atheistic. Brother Eugene and Sister Luba were baptized as children, but apparently during the German occupation, when there were some concessions to the faithful regarding the rites of the church. In Soviet times, teachers were forbidden not only to baptize children and go to church, but also to bake Easter cakes, make Easter eggs from eggs… For this you could pay for work at school. Meanwhile, working at the school gave teachers not only the appropriate social status, respect for fellow villagers, but also a stable salary… As for me, I accepted Orthodox baptism at the age of 40, although I believed in God much earlier - probably at the age of 10. And that's why.
I really liked tinkering. These were bows, arrows, crossbows (my father taught me to make them), as well as gliders, rubber aircraft, submarines, telescopes, microscopes, submachine guns (these are pistols from the era of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, in which the charge of gunpowder or sulfur is ignited by sparks hit the chicken, and a match), powder rockets… I made almost constantly and all the time I forgot that Sunday came and today you can not do anything like that. And so, again and again, I was convinced that if I forget that Sunday is a special day, I will definitely cut myself.
The second impetus to the immaterial worldview was the stories of the elders about all sorts of miracles that they witnessed. In modern terminology, he was a poltergeist, although he was not the only one. Probably, I would not attach much importance to this, if I did not face it myself, personally.
For moral and ethical reasons, I do not want to go into detail here. They are unpleasant. I will only say that on the basis of this personal experience I made a firm choice "My way is only to God!".
In short, in essence, it turns out that what is written in the Bible about the existence of the forces of good and light, evil and darkness - is true. It is also true that the world is visible and invisible. The invisible world sometimes invades the visible world and what is the protection then? Prayer, especially prayer and fasting. And above all - the sign of the cross, when, having crossed himself, a person turns only to God. The One True God. God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob.
However, it is not enough to believe in God. There must be a fear of God - an effort to prevent sin so as not to anger God. This fear is one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit. The prophet Isaiah names seven gifts of the Holy Spirit: the spirit of the fear of God, the spirit of knowledge, the spirit of power, the spirit of counsel, the spirit of understanding, the spirit of wisdom, the spirit of the Lord (Isa. 11: 1-3).
As we can see, out of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, four concern the knowledge of this world, as if motivating us to reach the essence of things with our minds… Does this mean that the deep essence of things can really be reached only with our mind ? I think not. After all, it follows from the Holy Scriptures that truth is transcendent, its essence goes beyond the directly visible processes and phenomena of this World. This is well stated in the article by Svetlana Petrenko "And you will know the truth - and the truth will set you free: truth and freedom in the Bible", link: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343083254
This means that there is knowledge that is fundamentally inaccessible experimental (experimental) cognition or based on experience. The opposite of transcendence is immanence . In a broad sense, the transcendent is understood as "otherworldly" as opposed to the immanent.
It follows that there is knowledge that can only be given from above, from God, in the form of revelation. This is the knowledge that has been given many times to saints and prophets. No logical analysis can replace this knowledge.
And what is the maximum for obtaining relevant and essential knowledge for a scientist who studies Nature? In my opinion, this is to find evidence of God's Providence - such phenomena and processes in Nature, in which God's Will is not given directly and directly, as it was given to ancestors and prophets, but only peculiar hints, ie such events in the universe that clearly do not fit materialist picture of the world. Why so ? I think that because God has given us 66 books of Scripture, he has told us everything we need to know in order to be perfect and save our souls. There is only one thing left - to do His Will, His commandments.
Do we fulfill them?
MY WORLDVIEW, PUBLICATIONS
To the problem of external influences on solar activity:
scientific data and search for their explanation
Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National University
Observatory 3, Kyiv 04053, Ukraine
Below are the materials of my article published in the popular science magazine "Worldview" (Lozytsky V. To the problem of external influences on solar activity: scientific data and the search for their explanation // Worldview. - 2014. - №6 (50). - P. 31–36). Since this article was published six years ago, it was necessary to update some fragments of the text, including the latest data on solar activity and the results of its study.
In addition, some fragments of the text of this published article are almost identical to those on my site in the section "Worldview. Manuscripts ", namely in the manuscript Astronomical confirmations of the Bible. Gospel of St. Matthew, 18:18 ". Obviously, it is inappropriate to repeat these passages again.
That is why the text of the published article has been significantly revised, but I hope for the better. In particular, I added some new drawings that are not in the published article, as well as brief comments on them. However, the conclusions are left exactly as in the published version.
Planetary periods in cycles of solar activity.
Solar activity is a purely magnetic phenomenon in the surface layers of the Sun (its atmosphere), which has tremendous energy compared to other sporadic processes in the solar system. The magnetic energy of one active region on the Sun can be estimated at 10 ^ 31–10 ^ 34 erg, while solar flares can be estimated at 10 ^ 27–10 ^ 33 erg. The explosion energy of a 5-megaton bomb is 5.7x10 ^ 23 erg, which is 10 ^ 3–10 ^ 9 times less than the energy of solar flares.
According to modern scientific data, processes in magnetic fields (in particular, the Sun) can be affected only by electromagnetic fields caused, for example, by certain currents or magnetic fields induced by them. The gravitational fields of the planets cannot directly affect. More precisely, even if such an influence exists, modern science cannot describe it. In possible changes in the magnetic fields of the Sun, you should look first for the internal, solar cause, and only then - external, non-solar, but always - electromagnetic.
With regard to the latter, the following thesis seems unquestionable today: the relatively weak magnetic fields of the planets cannot somehow affect the strong local magnetic fields on the Sun (namely, such fields are the root cause of solar active regions). True, giant planets (particularly Jupiter) have long magnetospheres, but these magnetospheres do not extend to the Sun - on the contrary, they are deformed by the solar wind, literally "crumpled" by it. At least qualitatively, it is more legitimate to speak here not of the interaction of the magnetospheres of the Sun and the planets, but of the one-sided blowing of strongly deformed magnetospheres of the planets by the fluxes of the magnetized solar wind.
That is, in general, the situation is such that solar activity (as a magnetic phenomenon) cannot be influenced by the magnetic fields of the planets, and gravitational fields cannot be affected due to the different physical nature of magnetic and gravitational fields. Based on this, we should not expect any spatio-temporal effects in solar activity associated with foreign bodies relative to the Sun - planets, comets, etc.
It is all the more surprising that indications of the existence of the effects of such external influences on the Sun (specifically - on its solar activity) have been found, and for a long time. One of the convinced supporters of this idea was Pavlo Rodionovych Romanchuk, director of the Astronomical Observatory of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv from 1972 to 1987, a student of the professor of this university Serhiy Konstantinovich Vsekhsvyatsky. Pavlo Rodionovych was the head of the postgraduate course of the author of the article in 1975-1978, a respected teacher and mentor (the author's dissertation was defended in 1984 under the supervision of Teodor Teodorovich Tsap, a famous researcher of the Sun, then a senior researcher at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory). The main works of PR Romanchuk on this topic were published in 1970-1980, in particular in the "Bulletin of the University of Kiev"  (see also references in this paper).
Pavlo Rodionovich Romanchuk (1921-2008) - Defender of the Fatherland, Hero of the Soviet Union,
Director of the Astronomical Observatory of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv from 1972 to 1987.
One of the main observational effects, which was identified and discussed in the works of P.R. Romanchuk - a statistical relationship between the number of spots on the Sun and the relative location in the orbits of the largest planets in the solar system - Jupiter and Saturn. It has been observed that in the 11-year cycle the number of sunspots is mostly maximum when the difference between the longitudes of Jupiter and Saturn is close to 90 ° (so-called squaring), and minimum when the difference is close to 0 ° or 180 °. in connection). To explain this pattern, it was proposed to consider the gravitational influence of the planets not directly on the magnetic field, but on the substance of the convective element, which carried to the surface of the Sun and plasma and magnetic field. Since the magnitude of the corresponding tidal force, according to calculations, was very small (it gave an amplitude of the effect of only 1 mm), the idea was put forward that the action of planets on the Sun is resonant, with tidal amplitude 5-8 orders of magnitude greater than static tide .
In favor of the influence of the planets on solar activity is also evidenced by the study of Russian researchers Tsyryulnik LB, Kuznetsova TV and Oraevsky VN  Analyzing observational data on changes in solar activity in the period from 1700 to 1995. and using the method of nonlinear spectral analysis, called the global minimum method, they concluded that there are about 20 reliable cycles in the spectrum of fluctuations in solar activity. In the power-period diagram, this cycle is split into two peaks, corresponding to 10.97 and 10.74 (Fig. 1). Next in amplitude is the peak at 11.89, which is very close to the period of Jupiter's rotation around the Sun (11.86). Then in the order of decreasing power is the period of 9.97, quite close to the period of repetition of squaring in the system "Jupiter-Saturn" (9.90).
Fig. 1. Comparison of the spectrum of oscillations of solar activity according to  with some periods of planetary rotation around the Sun.
Another independent confirmation of the influence of the planets on solar activity was later obtained. Kharkiv researchers Akimov LA, Belkina IL and Bushuyeva TP (Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies, 2003, vol. 19, № 1, pp. 3–12), studying X-ray and optical flares in the Sun by Fourier analysis, found that in the power spectra of these flares there are reliable periods of 36.5 , 73, 88 and 116 days.
The first period almost exactly coincides with the average period of axial rotation of the Sun, visible from Mercury, the second is its double value. The period of 88 days is the sidereal (relative to fixed stars) period of Mercury's rotation around the Sun, and 116 days is the synodic (visible from Earth) period of the planet's rotation around the Sun. It also turned out that flares on the Sun occur more when Mercury is furthest from the Sun. The authors of this paper explain the identified patterns by the fact that Mercury accumulates a significant electric charge from the solar wind (~ 10 ^ 22 charged particles), and this charge can be a kind of trigger in the occurrence of solar flares. The proposed explanation is attractive for its physicality, but at present it is not calculated in detail mathematically and therefore causes some distrust of the general public. However, from the time when P.R. Romanchuk hypothesized the influence of planets on solar activity, this hypothesis is confirmed by more modern methods of statistical processing of series of observational data.
Some strange coincidences of processes on the Sun and on Earth
In a detailed study of changes in solar activity over time, such coincidences of processes on the Sun and on Earth attract attention.
1. The maximum number of sunspots in the last 5,000 years was "very recently" - in the 19th cycle of solar activity, which began in 1954, had a maximum in 1957. and ended in 1964. This conclusion was reached by the Russian heliophysicist Yu.A. Nagovitsyn on the basis of a rather subtle and modern analysis - the reconstruction of solar activity in the past, using the radiocarbon method  - Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Reconstruction of solar activity for the last 5000 years according to the work of Yu.A. Nagovitsina . The extreme right peak corresponds to the 19th cycle of solar activity; it can be seen that its height is the highest in the last 5,000 years.
It is known that the International Geophysical Year (IGR) was specially organized in 1957 to study abnormally high solar activity. Then there were numerous and powerful flashes on the Sun, which gave both geophysical and radiation effects. However, large-scale tests of nuclear weapons by two superpowers, the USSR and the USA, prevented the reliable separation of radiation effects from the abnormally active Sun. The peak of nuclear tests coincided with the peak of solar activity!
To clarify: data from the drilling of centuries-old ice in Antarctica and Greenland showed that until 1945, the Earth had never detonated nuclear bombs, which are known to cause radioactive contamination of the environment. But there has never been such high solar activity, at least for the last 5,000 years! Quite a strange coincidence, isn't it?
However, such a coincidence may be pure coincidence. But what is its probability ? What is the probability of accidentally falling into a time interval of about 10 years, if the length of the whole interval is 5000 years? This is approximately 10/5000 = 1/500, ie 0.2 %. Very unlikely chance…
2. The largest in area and diameter sunspots were in 1939 and in 1946-1947 (Fig. 3). Detailed statistical analysis of such data was performed in the Department of Solar Activity and Solar-Terrestrial Relations of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Astronomical Observatory [4, 5].
Fig. 3. Comparison of the areas of the largest sunspots per year for the last 140 years according to the data of . On the abscissa axis - years, on the ordinate axis - the area of groups of spots, expressed in millionths of the hemisphere of the Sun (1 m.p. = 3.04x10 ^ 6 sq. Km). The largest values of Sp correspond to the following years: 1946-1947 and 1939. In third place - the year 1989.
One of the main conclusions here is that over the past 140 years, the largest sunspots (up to 140-160 thousand kilometers) appeared on the Sun in the following years: 1946-1947 and 1939. However, the year 1939 follows only the data obtained at the Pulkovo Observatory. If we proceed from the data of the observatory in Greenwich, then only one high peak should be considered reliable in Fig. 3 - the one corresponding to the years 1946-1947.
3. If we take the 10 most powerful X-ray solar flares in the last 44 years, half of them fall on 2001-2005, and the most powerful flare X28 + was on November 4, 2003 (Fig. 4). Data on these solar flares are regularly posted at: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/rt_plots/xray_5m.html.
Fig. 4. Comparison of the number of sunspots (solid curve) with the most powerful solar flares, the time of their appearance is shown by vertical segments of greater length, the more powerful the flare on the Sun.
4. About a century ago, OL Chyzhevsky (1897–1964) found that solar activity is closely correlated with the so-called mass movements on Earth (wars, campaigns, uprisings, battles, etc.) . Performing a huge amount work on the study and comparison of these social events, which captured the largest masses of people, he established a surprising pattern: these mass events in the 2400-year history of mankind (from 500 BC to 1900 AD) tended to recur periodically , and for one century there were an average of 9 "waves" of such events. Since 100: 9 ≈ 11 (years), and solar activity has an 11-year cycle, he concluded that a kind of "modulation" of social events by processes of activity in the Sun.
Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky (1897, Chekhanovets, Grodno region, now - Poland, - 1964, Moscow) one of the founders of space biorhythmology.
For the era of telescopic research (since 1610) such "modulation" is traced directly: the number of large-scale social events is greatest in the years of maximum solar activity, while in the years of minimums it decreases by about 10 times  On this basis Chizhevsky O. L. came to the conclusion that "the sun is a cosmic generator of neuropsychological arousal of people", which, ultimately, leads to the emergence and spread of social movements.
The events of the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 also fit into this correlation. rehabilitated and returned to Moscow only in 1958.
In our time, some identified OL It is already difficult for Chizhevsky to confirm or refute the effects: from the 1940s to the 1950s, anthropogenic radiation pollution began to increase markedly, and this pollution often makes noise and obscures the "earth's echo of solar storms." Therefore, it makes sense to trace the effects on Earth only from the most powerful processes on the Sun.
It should be noted that new data on solar activity (at one time unknown to OL Chizhevsky), also call into question his conclusion. Indeed, modern methods have shown that from 1645 to 1715 there was a so-called Maunder minimum of solar activity, when the Sun for decades there were almost no spots. Meanwhile, according to OL Chizhevsky, at that time there were six clear "waves" of mass movements, including uprisings led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Stepan Razin and others. That is, the "waves" of mass movements "ran" on Earth when the Sun was completely calm!
… The years 1939 and 1946-1947 are memorable for humanity. In 1939, World War II began, claiming tens of millions of lives.… About 1939 Werner Heisenberg, winner of the Nobel Prize in 1932, said: creation of a nuclear bomb ". However, as we know, this did not happen - ambitions, state interests, fear of being weaker than a possible rival on the world stage prevailed. And the result is known. This is not only the horror of the peaceful burning of peaceful Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but also the progressive radioactive contamination that threatens the genetic stability of Homo sapiens as a species - completely healthy children are born less and less… This is not a definite possibility global nuclear conflict.
And if 1939 was a year of ideological upheaval in the development of civilization, the direction of its path in a dangerous direction, the years 1946-1947 - the first years after the nuclear shock caused by the realization of the idea, which should be carefully and forever buried in 1939.
In the Epistle to the Corinthians, the Apostle Paul said (1 Cor. 6:12): “All things are lawful for me, but not all things are expedient. I can do anything, but I shouldn't have anything. " If all people on Earth not only knew these words, but were always guided by them in life, weighing their actions, there would be no nuclear threat today…
From the fact that during the Maunder minimum of solar activity on Earth, "waves" of social upheavals still "ran", it follows that the Sun is "not to blame" for our troubles. Conversely, there is some evidence that the Sun is "good" to us. This follows most convincingly from the work of Kharkiv astronomers Akimova LA and Belkina IL . These authors studied the solar flare activity for the entire 21st cycle (1976-1986), including counting the number of flares on the Sun that occurred in its northern hemisphere, southern, eastern and western. In just 11 years, when the Sun made 160 revolutions around its axis, all solar flares were 55964. And so it turned out that the number of solar flares in the eastern part of the Sun is significantly higher than in the western (Fig. 5). The level of reliability of the effect is six "sigma", ie six rms errors. In the natural sciences it is considered a reliable effect, even when it reaches the level of three "sigma".
Fig. 5. East-western asymmetry of the solar flare activity in the cycle № 21 according to Akimov LA and Belkina IL . The heliographic coordinates of solar flares in angular degrees are given along the horizontal axis, with -90 corresponding to the eastern limb (ie the edge of the disk) of the Sun, zero (degrees) corresponding to the central meridian of the Sun (as seen from Earth) and +90 corresponding to the western limb. The vertical axis shows the total number of solar flares for the entire 21st cycle.
At the same time, for the northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun there is no statistically significant difference. Similar results were previously obtained by Czechoslovak scientists .
This effect, called east-west asymmetry, means that solar flares cannot be considered a uniformly random process. Surprisingly, the sun distributes flashes on the disk so that they less "get" our Earth. In this sense, the Earth occupies a certain position in the solar system, despite the fact that it constantly rotates in its orbit around the Sun.
Indeed, the western part of the Sun's disk is more geoefficient for us - it is those flashes that occur in the west, more often give magnetic storms, and those in the east - less. This is due to the fact that the lines of force of a large-scale magnetic field emanating from the Sun's surface into interplanetary space are not straight - they have a spiral appearance (like the Archimedes spiral) due to the Sun's rotation around its axis. To date, this effect is not possible to satisfactorily explain in academic science. Especially since Akimov LA and Belkina IL also found that this effect (called east-west asymmetry) also has annual modulation: its greatest amplitude is in the second quarter of the year (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6. Change in the east-west asymmetry of the solar flare activity during the year.
To reduce measurement errors, the observation data are averaged over the entire 11-year cycle,
as well as at 20-day intervals within the year.
In other words, April-May-June is the special period when the Sun is especially "good" to us - then there are significantly more flashes in its eastern part than in the western. As can be seen from Fig. 6, this period corresponds to the days of Orthodox Easter and the days of the Holy Trinity. There are some fluctuations in this effect at other times of the year, but they are statistically insignificant.
Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), one of the greatest physicists and astrophysicists of the twentieth century, once said, "There is nothing simpler than a star!"
As for the author of this article, he would never have said that about a star called the Sun. On the contrary, this star seems very, very difficult, mysterious and amazing. It is very likely that the processes of magnetic activity that occur in its atmosphere are not completely autonomous and independent of external influences. Probably, some external influence on solar activity still exists, although the nature of this influence is currently unknown. Of course, such a point of view (difficult enough to perceive from the standpoint of the achievements of modern heliophysics) requires careful testing in the future on a larger volume of observational material.
And while empirical data will accumulate, let's look at this problem philosophically. Namely, the above data can be considered as another confirmation of the anthropic principle, according to which this world is such that our existence is possible in it. Or in another, humanistic, interpretation: this world is such that we feel good here.
There is a correspondence with the conclusions of the classics of philosophy that our knowledge is not in a circle (with a return to the same ideas), but in a spiral - with a return to previous ideas, but at a higher level of understanding. Earlier (in the time of Aristotle and 1800 years after him) in the center of the universe was the Earth and around it revolved spheres with celestial bodies. We now know that the Earth is just one of the planets of the solar system, and they all revolve around the center of mass "Sun + planets + other bodies of the solar system."
But, perhaps, some detail of Aristotle's universe still remained behind our Earth?
Романчук П.Р. К решению проблемы солнечно-земных связей, прогнозирования климата, погоды и вулканических извержений // Препринт ГАО-96-3Р. ГАО НАНУ, Киев,, 1996 (див. також вміщені в ньому посилання, а також праці автора 1970-1980 рр.).
Tsirulnik L.B., Kuznetsova T.V., Oraevsky V.N.Forecasting the 23and 24 solar cycles on the basis of MGM spectrum // Advances in SpaceResearch. – 1997. – Vol. 20. – Iss.12. – P.2369–2372.
Наговицы Ю.А. К вопросу об описании N-S асимметрии солнечной активности // Труды Всероссийской ежегодной конференции по физике Солнца, Санкт-Петербург, Пулково ГАО РАН, 2008. – С. 255–258.
Бабий В.П., Ефименко В.М., Лозицкий В.Г. Статистические характеристики крупных солнечных пятен в циклах солнечной активности №№¹17–23 // Кинематика и физика небесных тел. – 2011. – Т. 27. –№ 4. – С. 48–56.
Efimenko V.M., Lozitsky V.G. Essential features of long-term changes of areas and diameters of sunspots in solar activity cycles 12-24. – Advances in Space Research. – 2018. –Vol. 61, Iss. 11. – P. 2820–2826.
Чижевский А.Л. Земля в объятиях Солнца. – М., Изд-во. Эксмо, 2004. – 928 с.
Акимов Л.А., Белкина И.Л. Асимметрия и распределение по диску Н-альфа вспышек в 21 цикле // Кинематика и физика небесных тел. – 2015. – Т. 31, № 2.
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MY WORLDVIEW, MANUSCRIPTS
Astronomical confirmations of the Bible. Gospel of St. Matthew, 18:18
Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National University
named after Taras Shevchenko,
Observatory 3, Kyiv 04053, Ukraine
Arguments are made that the Gospel of St. Matthew, 18:18, has astronomical evidence. They are as follows:
(a) the maximum number of sunspots in the last 400 years was in the 19th cycle of solar activity (1954-1964); see, for example, Nagovitsyn and others. (2016). The maximum of the average areas of sunspots for the last 140 years was also in the 19th cycle (see Fig. 1 in the article by Efimenko and Lozytsky, 2018). It was during this period that the total energy of nuclear weapons testing around the world was at its peak;
(b) record large areas of sunspot groups per year (up to 5000-6000 million parts of the hemisphere) for the last 140 years were in the 18th cycle of solar activity, more precisely in 1946-1947 (Efimenko and Lozytsky, 2018), ie almost immediately after the first nuclear explosions on Earth in 1945.
(c) the most spectacular eruption of the eruptive protuberance (which reached an altitude of 1.7 million km) was observed on June 4, 1946 (Pettit, 1946) - about ten months after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki;
(d) the most powerful X-ray flare in the Sun in 44 years, according to GOES (https://www.spaceweatherlive.com/en/solar-activity/top-50-solar-flares), had a score of X28 + and occurred on November 4 2003 - About 7.5 months after the start of the large-scale war in Iraq (it began on March 20, 2003). It should be reminded that during this war there was a massive bombing of the territory of Mezhyrich Tigris and Euphrates, where according to the Bible, there used to be paradise on earth (Genesis 2: 8-2: 14);
The probability of accidental occurrence of these solar-terrestrial correlations is quite low, at the level of about 1-2%. However, if we consider the whole set of these solar-terrestrial correlations as independent events, then the probability of a coincidence is about 10 ^ –6 or less. Such a very low level of probability may mean that these phenomena on Earth and the Sun are causally related. But it is important to note that, first, some extreme events on the Sun occurred after unprecedented events on Earth. Secondly, the direct impact of terrestrial events on solar events is energetically impossible.
In this regard, we can assume God's Providence - a warning to mankind of his great mistakes. In particular, the great mistake of mankind was to create a nuclear bomb. It is better to have God's Mercy and Grace than nuclear or other superweapons.
The text of this manuscript is presented in Ukrainian with the inclusion of two fragments in Russian.
Keywords: the Sun; solar activity; solar-terrestrial correlations; extreme events; Gospel of St. Matthew, 18:18; warning to humanity; analogy between 2003 and 1859.
This popular science work is devoted to worldview aspects of astronomy and is addressed to a wide range of readers who are interested not only in the latest scientific achievements, but also in how these achievements are consistent (or inconsistent) with religion. In fact, in the modern era, science is given a dominant role in shaping people's worldview. Religious ideas are allowed only for moral and ethical reasons as those that preach high spiritual ideals, but which can neither be confirmed nor refuted. In contrast, correct science operates with knowledge that is considered true only when it can be confirmed by facts. If there are no facts, the knowledge is not considered reliable. That is why many scholars believe that science adequately reflects the essence of various processes and phenomena in this world, and the Scriptures and religion are a kind of cultural monument of mankind, which should be respected for their exceptional charm, preserving the traditions of many previous generations.
Galileo Galilei's point of view is interesting in this regard: “There are truths of science that are revealed to us in experiments and necessary proofs, and there are truths of faith, religion. These are two different worlds, two independent spheres of spirit that do not depend on each other. Knowledge is not a judge of true faith, religion is not a judge of correct science.
The urgency of writing such a work stems from the fact that in recent decades and even years in astronomy made a number of outstanding discoveries that can be considered as a scientific revolution in science. Even 40-50 years ago, the idea that the universe is boundless, eternal and stationary dominated. However, the "redshift" discovered in 1929 in the spectra of galaxies indicates that the universe is non-stationary - it is expanding and began its existence in the form of the so-called Big Bang. It also turned out that luminous matter in the universe occupies only a few percent of its total mass, the rest is concentrated in invisible dark matter and dark energy. What do these concepts mean - something purely physical or perhaps mystical? Aren't our Earth threatened by mysterious black holes that can attract entire stars and planets? And how long will the sun still shine on us and can there be some kind of catastrophe on Earth from sudden bursts of solar activity?
The author does not intend to comment on each of these issues, as well as some other issues related to the revolutionary achievements of modern astronomy. Being an expert in its rather narrow field - solar physics, the author would like to briefly present and comment on only some data on solar activity. This is exactly the scientific field in which a lot of unreliable information and speculation regularly appears both on the Internet and in other media. Moreover, these speculations, if you think about it, seem to be presented with one goal: to intimidate people more. A legitimate question arises: why? Will we live better out of fear? Should those who wish good to the people and prosperity to their state do so? For comparison, let me recall the statement of Robert-Lewis Stevenson, author of the well-known work "Treasure Island" and other masterpieces: "We will do our best to teach people joy. And we will remember that these lessons should sound cheerful and inspiring, they should strengthen people's courage. " This is how we should act in a state where our children could be happy!
The author tried to write this work in the simplest and most understandable language and hopes that readers will have enough patience and interest to read it to the end.
With respect and best wishes -
Francis Bacon (1561-1626), one of the first great philosophers of the New Age, the founder of the scientific (anti-scholastic) method of cognition, said: "Little knowledge leads from God, great knowledge leads to him." A similar view was later expressed by other scientists. In particular, Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), one of the creators of quantum mechanics and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932, said: "The first sip from the cup of science breeds atheism, but at the bottom of the cup we are waiting for God."
As can be seen from these quotations, for three centuries the criterion for obtaining a conclusion about the existence of God has not changed: such a conclusion requires greater or deeper knowledge. This seems paradoxical, given that the knowledge of the seventeenth century. could be considered small in relation to the knowledge of the twentieth century. Despite this, even a little knowledge of the seventeenth century. was enough to bring Francis Bacon to God. Obviously, a certain amount of knowledge in itself is not a guarantee of obtaining the above worldview. This requires a deep philosophical understanding of scientific data, with an effort to understand their internal logic and the relationship in different scientific disciplines.
The eminent German astronomer Johann Kepler (1571-1630), who discovered the three laws of planetary motion, put it this way: "The Bible does not tell us how the sky is arranged, but how to get there." However, a careful reading of the Bible shows that it still contains essential information of an astronomical nature, which is confirmed by modern science.
For example, the Book of Genesis says that on the fourth day of the creation of the world, God created the sun, moon, and stars. "And God made both great lights, the great light to rule the day, and the small light to rule the night, even the stars" (Genesis 1:16) [ 1 ]. Indeed, according to astronomical measurements, the Sun is actually much larger than the Moon (about 400 times), although in the sky they seem to us the same angular size. This is due to the fact that the Moon is much closer to us than the Sun.
One of the main ideas of the first chapter of Genesis is that the world was created. That is, at first it did not exist, but then it was created by God in six days. If we pay attention to this basic idea, and not to the details, it is quite consistent with modern scientific theory of the Big Bang. This theory is based on such an observational fact, discovered by the American astronomer Edwin Hubble in 1929. In the spectra of distant galaxies, the spectral lines are shifted to the red region of the spectrum, especially the farther away from us the galaxy is. This shift is most likely due to the Doppler effect and reflects the global expansion of the universe, in which galaxies move away from each other as if "scattering". If we consider this "scattering" of galaxies in the deeper past, we have to assume that about 14 billion years ago the whole universe began its expansion from a very small volume, with a radius of 10 ^ -33 cm (20 orders of magnitude less, than the classical electron radius!). Before such an expansion, there was nothing, not even time. This means that space did not exist then, because according to the theory of relativity, space and time form an inseparable four-dimensional space-time continuum. In such a continuum, if one dimension (time) breaks, other spatial dimensions must automatically break. In this case, the most adequate characteristic of the universe at this point is "emergence" or "creation". Obviously, the characteristic of "transformation" does not fit here, because this term presupposes first the existence of something that then acquires a different quality, transforms into something. But if in the beginning there was nothing at all, then it is no longer a transformation, but a creation. Since the non-existent cannot turn into something existing, that is, since the universe could not create itself, a natural question arises: who created the existing universe?
This issue is all the more relevant due to two circumstances: (1) The Big Bang began with a colossal release of energy, ie the appearance of very high energy in a very small amount of space and (2) in that extremely small amount of space was introduced huge amounts of information about physical laws, constants, interactions, otherwise with the further evolution of the universe it would be chaos, which is not the case. The universe is extremely structured and very complex. The natural question is: where did so much energy and information come from?
Obviously, correct science will never be able to give direct answers to these questions precisely because there can be no direct experimental data about those times. More precisely, the data may be, but have already been transformed over a very long period of time of about 14 billion years. Such as relic radiation, which indicates the hot phase of expansion of the universe.
But, fortunately, in the universe closest to us, we observe such phenomena and processes, about which there are direct observational data and these data are very valuable for the above question. This is data on solar activity. They have been accumulated for a long time and they are really direct and documented, as required by correct science.
Some of these data will be discussed below and shown to confirm an important place in the Bible: “Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed. "He will be bound in heaven" (Matthew 18:18). However, first consider what is solar activity.
What is solar activity
Solar activity is a very complex phenomenon in the Sun's atmosphere, associated with the emergence of strong concentrated magnetic fields on its surface. Where these fields appear, sunspots appear. Sunspots - these are cooled areas of the Sun's surface (its photospheres), where the temperature is reduced to 3500-4000 K against 6000 K outside them. This cooling occurs due to the fact that strong magnetic fields in sunspots block the supply of energy from below, from the hot sun. The magnitude of the magnetic field in sunspots is usually 2000–3000 Gs, and very rarely 4000–6000 Gs [ 6 ]. In very small (spatially inseparable) structures in the shadow of sunspots, the existence of even stronger fields, about 8000 Gs, is probable [ 7 ]. Such magnetic fields are about 10,000 times stronger than the magnetic field of our Earth near its surface. At present, the upper limit of magnetic field strengths in spatially inseparable structures is unknown, because the corresponding measurements can only be indirect and quite complex in methodological terms [ 5 ].
Those groups of sunspots where strong magnetic fields are entangled, located very closely and have opposite magnetic polarity, most often give solar flares. Solar flares are explosive processes in its atmosphere, during which energy is released 10 ^ 27–10 ^ 32 erg. They last from a few minutes to 3-4 hours and are associated with the sudden conversion of magnetic energy into energy in other forms - heat, electromagnetic radiation, accelerated particles, shock waves and coronal mass emissions. Solar flares are very interesting objects for research, but it is even more difficult to measure magnetic fields in them than in sunspots [ 8 ]. It is also important to predict the occurrence of solar flares, especially powerful, as they can significantly affect the Earth's space, the Earth's ionosphere and its biosphere. In particular, if the coronal emission of mass flies towards the Earth, it in 1-3 days flies into the Earth's magnetosphere, and then begins to change slightly the strength of the magnetic field in which we are constantly. This is the so-called magnetic storm. Most people do not experience these storms, but obviously not all. To date, this issue is still insufficiently studied.
A characteristic feature of solar activity is its 11-year cycle. However, this is only the most intense and obvious cycle of activity of the Sun, a kind of its "pulse". A more detailed analysis shows that in the spectrum of fluctuations in solar activity there are about 20 less intense but reliable cycles, in particular, also cycles lasting 11.89 and 9.97 years [ 11 ]. These cycles are close to the periods of Jupiter's rotation around the Sun (11.86) and the repetition of quadratures in the Jupiter Saturn system (9.90).
It should be emphasized that solar activity has tremendous energy compared to other sporadic processes in the solar system. The magnetic energy of one active region on the Sun can be estimated at 10 ^ 31–10 ^ 34 erg, while solar flares (see above) can be estimated at 10 ^ 27–10 ^ 32 erg. Powerful solar flares last about an hour, hence the power of such flashes - at 10 ^ 28 erg / sec, ie 10 ^ 21 watts (Tue). For comparison: the power of earthquakes - about 10 ^ 11 watts, and tidal friction (which slows down the Earth's rotation) - 10 ^ 12 watts. The explosion energy of a 5-megaton bomb is about 5.7x10 ^ 23 erg, which is 10 ^ 3–10 ^ 9 times less than the energy of solar flares.
From this comparison we see that the energy of active processes on the Sun is many orders of magnitude higher than the energy of the most powerful processes on Earth. In addition, due to the great distance from the Earth to the Sun, about 150 million kilometers, this energy of terrestrial processes, scattering by the law of inverted squares, must reach the Sun even more weakened. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, we should not expect any direct impact of terrestrial processes on solar activity. This means that there should be no solar-terrestrial correlations according to the "Earth-Sun" scheme. However, as shown in a previous article by the author [ 3 ], in fact we have clear indications of such correlations. Since this article did not make mathematical estimates of the randomness of these correlations (except for one of them), this should be done additionally, based on the most reliable data published in international journals. This, as well as a discussion of the results obtained, is the author's goal in this paper.
Solar-terrestrial correlations for unprecedented events
Before considering in detail some solar-terrestrial correlations, two such methodological remarks should be made.
First, it makes sense to consider first of all the most intense, unprecedented events on Earth and in the Sun. Such events are few, they are isolated in those time intervals where there is reliable data on a particular parameter. If we consider ordinary events, there are a lot of them, they form a kind of "fence" of events in time, and there are always, if desired, you can find some correlations, although they can only be purely coincidences.
Secondly, it is important to consider such parameters of solar activity that are homogeneous over the longest possible time intervals. Most often, when studying solar activity, Wolf numbers W are analyzed, which are calculated as follows: W = k (10g + f), where k is some instrumental coefficient, g is the number of groups of spots on the visible hemisphere of the Sun, f is the number of all consecutive spots. It is important that the division of all spots observed on the Sun into groups of spots is carried out according to magnetic characteristics. The main criterion here is as follows: in the group of spots should be the main and tail magnetic polarities, and these polarities change according to a certain law from one 11-year cycle to another, as well as when crossing the solar equator. Therefore, for example, the presence of one compact group of spots on the Sun does not mean that this group should be considered as one group when counting Wolf numbers. These can be two closely related groups of spots. The question of the presence of one or two groups of spots can be solved here only on the basis of spectral-polarization observations based on the Zeeman effect, which make it possible to determine both the magnetic field strength in the spots and their magnetic polarity. However, the problem here is that such observations have been made for a little over 100 years (since 1908), while telescopic spot observations and direct determinations of Wolff numbers since 1610. Moreover, the rule of magnetic polarities in groups of sunspots was established by Hale and Nicholson only in 1925. Therefore, all definitions of Wolf numbers before 1925 are somewhat conditional - in fact, they have an unknown factor in the magnetic polarities of groups of spots. That is, strictly speaking, the existing number of Wolf numbers is heterogeneous.
In contrast, a number of sunspot area corrected for projection effects can be considered homogeneous, including the Greenwich Catalog and its extension to the NOAA-USEF ( http://solar.science.msfc.nasa.gov/greenwich/ ). Such data will be considered below.
A. Smoothed the number of sunspots and their area. Today it is well known that the highest level of solar activity for the last 400 years was in the 19th cycle (1954-1964) [ 9 ]. This conclusion, made first on the basis of a comparison of Wolf numbers, is especially obvious when considering the areas of sunspot groups [ 4 ] (Fig. 1). The figure shows that the 19th cycle is unprecedentedly powerful at least among the last 13 solar cycles
Fig. 1. Variations of monthly smoothed areas of groups of sunspots Sp, s from 1878 to 2016,
expressed in parts per million of the solar hemisphere (1 ppm = 3.04x10 ^ 6 km ^ 2).
In this figure, the odd numbers 13, 15, 17, etc. denote the corresponding numbers of odd 11-year cycles of solar activity [ 4 ].
Earthquakes are somewhat similar to solar activity on Earth because they are also local, sporadic, and very powerful, especially catastrophic earthquakes of magnitude M > 7.9. Analyzing such earthquakes, Lozytska [ 2 ] found that from 1898 to 1977 their global energy release was maximum in the 19th cycle.
However, there is another coincidence: it was during this 11-year period that the maximum energy of global nuclear weapons tests was achieved by the two then superpowers - the Soviet Union and the United States. The maximum annual energy of earthquakes then reached 3.6x10 ^ 25 erg, and the maximum annual energy of global nuclear weapons tests - 8x10 ^ 24 erg, ie these energies were almost commensurate - differed by less than an order of magnitude . As we now know, after the period 1954-1964, there was no longer such a large total energy of global nuclear weapons tests: although more nuclear charges were detonated in the following years, almost all of them were much less powerful than those detonated in specified period. But that's not all. Figure 1 shows that in the activity cycles №№ 12-16 the solar activity was approximately at the same level, while in the cycles №№ 17-19 it progressively increased. It grew in those cycles when the study of the atomic nucleus deepened on Earth, classified research in various countries, and which eventually led to the creation of a nuclear bomb, its combat use, led to large-scale nuclear weapons tests… But after the Moscow Treaty of 1963 banning nuclear tests in three environments (atmosphere, space and underwater) solar activity has stabilized again at almost the same level. Quite a strange coincidence, isn't it so ?
B. The maximum area of groups of sunspots Sp, max (up to 5000–6000 m.p.) per year for the last 140 years was recorded in 1946–1947 [ 4 ], and the first extremely large groups of spots appeared on January 31, 1946. - about six months after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively), see Fig. 2. It should be recalled that all nuclear explosions on Earth were about 2600, including experimental, industrial and combat. And there were only two fighting - the explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Fig. 2 . Comparison of the maximum areas of groups of sunspots Sp, max for each year from 1879 to 2017.
It is seen that in the 18th cycle (more precisely, in 1946-1947) there was an unprecedented jump in the parameter Sp, max , which has no analogues in other cycles [ 4 ].
B. The highest level of coronal activity of the Sun in the form of a grand eruption of an eruptive protuberance to a record altitude (1.7 million km, ie more than the diameter of the Sun) was observed on June 4, 1946. [ 10 ] - about 10 months after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous exceptionally powerful protuberances were observed on September 17, 1937. (reached a height of 1 million km.) and March 20, 1938. (maximum lift height was 1.55 million km.).
It should be noted that solar prominences and coronal mass ejections (CME) are different manifestations of solar activity. Solar prominences have long been traditionally observed in terrestrial observatories in the light of the Hα hydrogen line, while coronal mass emissions can be observed in white light, but outside the Earth's atmosphere - for example, with LASCO coronographs of the SOHO orbital observatory. In protuberances the temperature is at the level of 10 ^ 4K and the magnetic field is significantly amplified, while in CME the temperature is about 10 ^ 6K, ie the same as in the corona of the Sun. There are currently no direct data on the magnetic field in these formations.
D. The most powerful X-ray flare in the Sun in the last 44 years, according to GOES ( http://www.swpc.noaa.gov ), had a score of X28 + and occurred on November 4, 2003. To decide which of the events on Earth can be considered correlated with this event on the Sun, we use the criterion that follows from the previous correlations A, B and B. From the above we can see that the three unprecedented phenomena on Earth and the Sun or coincided in time (correlation A), or differed in time by no more than one year (correlations B and C). In this case, the correlating event on Earth for the X28 + solar flare should be considered the war in Iraq, which began on March 20, 2003, was the largest at that time and caused the greatest public response in the world (X28 + solar flare occurred, therefore, 7.5 months after the start of the Iraq war). Of course, this war cannot be considered unprecedented in scale and human casualties, as World War II was. But the uniqueness of this war is that during its period there was a massive bombing of the interfluve of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, where according to the Scriptures there used to be a paradise on earth (Genesis 2: 8-2: 14).
Probability of coincidences
Of course, the above correlations from A to D can be purely random. The probability of coincidence can be estimated as follows. Let us be interested in a relatively narrow period of time in the time interval of 400 years, namely the 19th cycle (1954–1964) with a duration of about 10 years. What is the probability of accidentally falling into this short period of time? Obviously, this probability is equal to the ratio of the lengths of these time intervals, ie the ratio of 10/400. Let us denote this value by p A , ie p A ~ 10/400 = 0.025 = 2.5%;
Similarly, we can estimate the probability of randomness for the other solar-terrestrial correlations listed above.
p B ~ 0.5 / 140 ~ 0.0036 = 0.36%;
p B ~ 0.83 / 50 ~ 0.0166 = 1.66 %;
р Г ~ 0.63 / 44 ~ 0.0143 = 1.43%.
We can see that the probability of coincidence in some cases is quite low, about 1-2% or even less. However, this is not all. We can ask the question like this: what is the probability that all correlations will occur together, ie in the full set from A to D ? According to probability theory, this is possible with a frequency equal to the result of multiplying all probabilities, ie
Р А + Б + В + Г = р А р Б р В р Г ~ 2.1x10 ^ –8.
It should be noted that the above formula for multiplying the probabilities is applicable only if all events from A to D are statistically independent. In our case, this is true, because, in general, these events took place at different times, ie they are not related to the same active region on the Sun.
Thus, we have a very small, almost zero probability. Even if we consider only the first three correlations for unconditionally unprecedented events on Earth and in the Sun, then
Р А + Б + В = р А р Б р В ~ 1.5x10 ^ –6 .
In other words, the above coincidence of processes on Earth and in the Sun with a high degree of confidence, almost 100%, can be considered not accidental.
For clarity, let's try to imagine what this probability of 1.5x10 ^ –6 means. Let us have a sufficient number of coins with a face value of 2 hryvnias; each such coin has a diameter of about 20 millimeters. Let all the coins be ordinary, made of the appropriate alloy, but one coin is gold, but outwardly camouflaged as ordinary. Let's do this: lay out all the coins on a flat surface close to each other so as to form a long straight line of these coins. Among these coins, somewhere in an unknown place, let there be a gold coin. We will bring the number of all coins to 670 thousand - this number is the inverse of the number 1.5x10 ^ –6 , ie it is 1: 1.5x10 ^ –6 . Then the length of the entire line drawn from all the coins will reach 13.4 kilometers. And so, moving along this 13.4 km long line, we have to guess a gold coin at random for the first time, having only one chance out of 670 thousand! Imagine how much you have to go, how many coins you have to look at to finally make the right choice… Obviously, from a practical point of view, the corresponding chance is zero. So, similarly, from a practical point of view, the probability is zero and the probability that the above correlations arose purely by chance.
However, it is not accidental that these events may mean that they are causally related. But here the question arises: what can be the causal link between events, for example, in the second correlation, ie between the explosions of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the appearance of unprecedentedly large sunspots? After all, purely energetically it is impossible. First, the energy of these explosions is many orders of magnitude less than the energy of flares on the Sun, and even more so than the magnetic energy of the largest groups of spots. Secondly, due to the great distance from the Earth to the Sun (about 150 million kilometers; light travels this distance, on average, 499 seconds), the energy impulse arising on Earth must inevitably be scattered in space by the law of inverted squares (as in law). of universal gravitation and in Coulomb's law) and only a small part of the energy released on Earth should reach the Sun. That is, any direct influence of this type from the Earth to the Sun seems impossible.
In this regard, the question can be posed as follows: what if it is not a direct impact? If it is an effect due to a factor not available for direct observation, which, however, is quite real, has a cosmic energy level and thus can ensure the visibility of the causal relationship "Earth - Sun"?
Let us reflect once again on the words of the Gospel of St. Matthew (18:18): “Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed. will be in heaven. As shown above, these words of the Bible confirm the following solar-terrestrial correlations:
(A) the maximum number of sunspots in the last 400 years was in the 19th cycle of solar activity (1954–1964) [4, 9 ] - just when the maximum total energy of global nuclear weapons tests and earthquake energy was [2 ];
(B) the maximum area of sunspot groups (up to 5000–6000 m.p.) for the last 140 years was recorded in 1946–1947. [ 4 ], and the first extremely large groups of spots appeared on January 31, 1946. - about six months after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively);
(B) The highest level of coronal activity of the Sun in the form of a grand eruption of an eruptive protuberance to a record altitude (1.7 million km) was observed on April 4, 1946. [ 10 ] - about 10 months after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki;
(D) The most powerful X-ray flare in the Sun in 44 years, according to GOES orbital detectors, had an X28 + rating and occurred on November 4, 2003, about 7.5 months after the start of the large-scale war in Iraq. Earths .
It is important to emphasize that the probability of coincidence of the above pairs of events is within (0.4 ... 2.5)%. If we estimate the probability of occurrence of all such events in their full set, then the probability of chance at the level of 10 ^ –8 ... 10 ^ –6 . Such a very small level of chance may mean that these events on Earth and in the Sun are causally related. Since the direct impact of terrestrial events on solar energy is impossible, it must be assumed that there is an indirect impact due to the inaccessible direct observation factor, which has a cosmic energy level. From the above data it follows that it is God. God not only really exists, but also takes care that we do not destroy ourselves. By creating a nuclear bomb, humanity has crossed the "red line" behind which there is a real threat to the end of the world. However, this is not the end of the world that the Bible speaks of and the time of its coming that no one knows but God the Father (Matthew 24:36). Unfortunately, this is a possible man-made end of the world, which we, the people, create ourselves and bring closer with our frivolous and ill-considered actions. Actions dictated by our vanity and pride.
What should we do next? It is necessary to take a step back from this "red line" by abandoning nuclear weapons forever, as Ukraine did in 1994. We must remember the words of the Apostle Paul (1 Cor. 6:12): “All things are lawful for me, but not all things are expedient. I can do anything, but I shouldn't have anything. "
The author is sincerely grateful to professors, doctors of physical and mathematical sciences. Klimyshyn Ivan Antonovych, Plichka Anatoliy Mykolayovych and Matsak Ivan Kalenikovych for fruitful scientific discussions on the topic of work.
Біблія або Книги Святого Письма Старого і Нового Заповіту із мови давньоєврейської й грецької на українську дослівно наново перекладена. Українського Біблійного Товариства. Ukrainian Bible Societies. ETS. – 1992. – 20M. – 063 (K).
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Strange eclipses of the Sun: interpretation on the verge
Bibles and science
Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv,
Observatory 3, Kyiv 04053, Ukraine
This paper analyzes mainly the strange eclipses of the Sun, which are mentioned in the Bible, as well as in chronicles and chronicles. According to these sources, these eclipses lasted much longer than astronomical eclipses, and were not accompanied by a sharp drop in temperature near the Earth's surface. During these "eclipses" the sun sharply reduced its brightness to the brightness of the moon, and in the dark sky you could see other stars. In particular, such strange eclipses of the Sun are recorded in the Bible, in the Gospels of St. Matthew (27:45), St. Luke (23: 44-23: 45) and St. Mark (17:33). As for the chronicles and chronicles, such very strange "eclipses" of the Sun were recorded in the following years AD: 137, 360, 409, 526, 536, 567, 624-625, 1206, 1241, 1547, 1645 and 1721. (Chizhevsky, 2004). However, the simultaneous fulfillment of these two circumstances - a significant reduction in the brightness of the Sun (and hence its luminosity) and the absence of significant cooling on Earth - is impossible from a scientific point of view. This means that the explanation should be sought at the intersection of science and religion. It should be noted that according to the Bible, light can have a dual nature: special, divine and astrophysical. Divine light appeared on the first day of the world, and astrophysical light only on the fourth day when God created the sun, moon, and other stars (Genesis 1: 3–1: 5 and 1: 14–1: 19). It is natural to assume that during these strange solar eclipses it was the Divine light and warmth that warmed people and the Earth. This confirms once again that all good in this world is ultimately from God, not from the sun and other natural conditions in which we live.
Keywords: the Sun; strange solar eclipses; Genesis (1: 3–1: 5, 1: 14–1: 19); The Gospels of St. Matthew (27:45), St. Luke (23: 44–23: 45) and St. Mark (17:33), the dual nature of light.
This work draws attention to interesting and documented features of our Sun that are not related to solar activity. After all, the observation of solar activity requires the use of astronomical instruments - telescopes, spectrographs, photometers, etc. Telescopes appeared about 400 years ago, in the seventeenth century. However, even earlier, unusual phenomena concerning the Sun were observed, which were observed even with the naked eye. This work is devoted to the analysis of such phenomena.
Before proceeding to consider these phenomena, let us briefly recall some data of modern science about the Sun.
The sun is not only the nearest, but also a unique star in its own way. This is a star with an optimal mass of 2x10 ^ 33 g. This is 333,000 times greater than the mass of our Earth. Due to this mass (as well as the corresponding chemical composition), it will shine as it does now, for a very long time - about 5 billion years [2,3,5].
The average distance to the Sun is 149.6 million km. Light travels this distance in 499 seconds, ie 8 minutes. and 19 sec. To imagine such a huge distance, it is enough to recall that moving at the speed of light in 1 second. it could fly around the earth's equator 7.5 times. But the distance from the Earth to the Sun is 499 times greater than this 7.5 revolutions around the Earth's equator…
The radius of the Sun is 696,000 km, which is 109 times larger than the radius of the Earth. The sun is about as many times larger than a human as many times larger than a human atom (~ 10 ^ 9 times). Only the great distance to the Sun hides from us the fact that the Sun is in fact a colossal cosmic body - much larger than the Moon (400 times), although in the sky they seem to us the same angular size, about half a degree or 1/720 of full car.
The sun is a hot gas ball. On its surface (photosphere) the temperature is 000 6000 kelvins (K), while in the center - about 15 000 000 K . It is due to the very high temperature in the core of the Sun that the reaction of thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium takes place, and very slowly, with a tunneling effect. This is due to the fact that in order for this reaction to take place, it is necessary to bring together two protons of the same charge at a distance of nuclear interaction close to the classical radius of the electron (2.8 × 10 ^ -13 cm). However, there are Coulomb repulsive forces between the protons, which can be overcome only at an energy of ~ 1.4 mega-electron-volts (MeV). The thermal energy of protons at the specified temperature is three orders of magnitude lower, ~ 1 keV. It would seem that protons cannot be brought closer to the required distance - there is not enough energy. However, in the microworld, such a remarkable property of microparticles as their corpuscular-wave dualism is manifested, due to which they have the properties of both localized particles and waves that try to propagate not the whole space. This is why in the bowels of the Sun, two protons can combine once every 10 to 10 years to form a heavier nucleus. This determines the rate of the fusion reaction in the bowels of the Sun and, ultimately, the luminosity of the Sun. The luminosity of the Sun (ie its power as a source of energy) is equal to 3.86 × 10 ^ 33 erg / sec or 3.86 ×
My parents are still relatively young here - they are 20 years younger here than I am now. I was loved very much, never beaten. They believed that I would be a scientist, not just a school teacher. They supported my interest in astronomy in every possible way. In addition to field binoculars donated by Leone Shulyak, I wanted to have a telescope ... My father (whom I called "dad" and addressed only "you") wrote a letter to Moscow, the Central Department Store, asking to sell the telescope. The answer was: "The Central Department Store does not sell telescopes." I pray for the peace of their souls every time I enter the temple of God. Also every Sunday at home.
This is again in 1954. The whole Lozytsky family together with our relative from Poltava region, Pavel Denisovich Lozytsky. Standing from left to right: Mr. Paul, sister Luba and brother Eugene. They are sitting: my mother and sister Lucy in my arms and my father, next to whom I am standing. D. Pavlo played the accordion very well, both folk songs and classics. Lyuba studied very well at school and graduated from Khyzhnytsia High School with a silver medal. Eugene was beautiful, sincere and witty, liked the girls. Lucy loved the programs "Theater in front of the microphone", especially those where there is great love and happiness in life ... Thank you, God, for those happy years!
All-Ukrainian Aerospace Forum "Space Ukraine", Kyiv, 12/3/2016
A fragment of the video with transmission TRK "Ukraine"
"What is photodermatitis
and why it can occur to anyone "
with the participation of V. Lozytsky - an expert physicist
Astrophysicist V. Lozytsky in the plot of the TV channel "1 + 1"
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Presentation before the interview TV channel "1 + 1"
"Weather-dependent: can magnetic storms really cause headaches and pressure surges?"
08/20/2020 19:30 (TSN)